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Cellular Comms Evolution


3GPP standards




UE – User Equipment

eNodeB – evolved NodeB (BS)

S-GW – Serving Gateway

P-GW – PDN Gateway

MME – Mobility Management Entity

HSS – Home Subscriber Server

PCRF – Policy Rules and Charging Control Function



HSS – Home Subscriber Server – stores subscriber information, roaming capabilities, QoS profiles, current registration; may integrate AUC functionality

P-GW – PDN Gateway – allocates UE IP address, QoS enforcement, filters downlink packets in different QoS bearers

S-GW – Serving Gateway local mobility node as UE switches between eNodeBs, buffers downlink data until paging completes, charging for visiting users

MME – Mobile Management Entity controls flow between UE and CN (corresponding node) – handles idle mobility

PCRF – Policy Control and Charging Rules Function – charging, policy control, QoS authorization

4G (LTE)

LTE stands for Long Term Evolution

Next Generation mobile broadband technology

Promises data transfer rates of 100 Mbps

Based on UMTS 3G technology

Optimized for All-IP traffic

Advantages of LTE


Comparison of LTE Speed


Major LTE Radio Technogies

Uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for downlink

Uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for uplink

Uses Multi-input Multi-output(MIMO) for enhanced throughput

Reduced power consumption

Higher RF power amplifier efficiency (less battery power used by handsets)


ادامه مطلب و دانلود مقاله


Iyappan Ramachandran, A Deeper Look at LTE, Agilent Technologies, 2010.